Tajikistan is one of the most climate vulnerable countries in Central Asia. It frequently experiences extreme climate events such as intense spring rainfall, excessive melt-waters from large snow accumulations and droughts and occasionally devastating glacier lake outburst floods released from temporary glacial lakes. These can cause mudflows and floods or reduce water availability and avalanches, landslides, rock falls in the mountainous regions. These hazards routinely take lives and destroy or degrade land, crops and infrastructure. 6. As a result of these vulnerabilities and predicted climate changes, Tajikistan is a focus country for the Pilot Program for Climate Resilience (PPCR), a multilateral development program which aims to demonstrate the integration of actions to increase climate resilience and to adapt to climate change into development activities. A significant focus of this work was in the Pyanj river basin where communities are already experiencing the impacts of extreme climate events with more than 360 climate-induced disasters were reported over the last two decades. 7.
The Pyanj River Basin is the largest in Tajikistan (covering an area of over a hundred thousand square kilometers), contains a large proportion of the country’s agricultural land, has a population of about 1.3 million people, and partly covering two regions, Khatlon Oblast and Gorno Badakhshan Autonomous Oblast (GBAO) with 18 rayons (districts) and 115 jamoats (communities). The Khatlon Oblast geographically closer to and has better communications with the rest of Tajikistan due to its comparatively gentler terrain than the GBAO where the population is sparser but also much more isolated. The main climate threats faced in the flood plains and hills of the Khatlon Oblast region of the Pyanj River Basin are mudflows and floods caused by significant snow-melt and intense spring rain and droughts caused by dryer than 3 average winters. The GBAO faces similar threats in addition to avalanches, landslides and rock falls resulting from significant winter and spring precipitation.